around 90-95 percent of people with 卡塔尔世界杯赛程表
suffer from androgenetic alopecia (aga), also known as male pattern baldness. just 1-2 percent suffer from alopecia areata (aa), aka patchy 卡塔尔世界杯赛程表
due to an autoimmune problem.
however, in recent years, alopecia areata (and the related alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis) have been in the news almost every week. most of the coverage tracks miraculous before and after 2022世界杯决赛日期
results via the use of jak inhibitors. i covered this subject close to ten times a few years ago. more than 300,000 americans currently live with severe alopecia areata.
fda approves baricitinib for alopecia areata
yesterday, the us fda approved olumiant (baricitinib) oral tablets to treat adult patients with severe alopecia areata. this drug is sold by eli lilly and incyte. this once-a-day pill is the first ever approved in-disease systemic treatment for adults with severe alopecia areata (aa). monthly cost without insurance will be $2,500.
olumiant is a janus kinase (jak) inhibitor that blocks the activity of a family of enzymes. this in turn interferes with the pathway that leads to inflammation in alopecia areata. note that olumiant is already approved for treating moderate and severe rheumatoid arthritis. it is available in 4 mg, 2 mg and 1 mg tablets (with the recommended dose for aa being 2 mg per day).
the approval for alopecia areata was based on lilly’s brave-aa1 and brave-aa2 trials. these were the largest phase 3 clinical trials ever completed in humans suffering from aa. both trials were led by yale university’s dr. brett king.
patients in the lilly study experienced relatively mild side effects, including slightly increased risk of acne, urinary tract infections and other infections. those side effects were easily treatable or improved without treatment. around one-half of patients regrew their hair after one year of treatment.
note that it was aclaris therapeutics which originally got the patent rights for the use of baricitinib in treating 卡塔尔世界杯赛程表
in 2017. earlier this year, i also discussed some phenomenal baricitinib 2022世界杯决赛日期
results. the before and after photos (seen above) are courtesy of dr. brett king and his work.
a number of other jak inhibitors have shown impressive results in treating alopecia totalis and universalis. among the more famous of these include ruxolitinib, tofacitinib and decernotinib. see all my past posts covering jak inhibitors for more details.
pfizer (ritlecitinib) and concert pharmaceuticals (ctp-543) are also planning to release jak inhibitors to treat alopecia areata in the near future.
i originally published this important post on a cure for grey hair in january 2016. this is a second comprehensive update since that time. the post is now too lengthy and disjointed, but still worth a thorough read.
update:june 2021 — a new experiment mapped human hair greying in relation to recent life stress events. i am very skeptical about stress causing premature hair greying in most people. i have devoted a whole section to this popular subject in the second half of this post.
update: april 2021 — harvard university scientists and a team from south korea are developing a treatment for grey hair using pigment stem cells in hair follicles.
update: september 2020 — japanese scientists discovered an unexpected side-effect of dupilumab: reversal of hair graying. dupilumab is a dual inhibitor of interleukin 4 and interleukin 13. it is used to treat allergic diseases such as eczema, asthma and nasal polyps.
update:june 2020 — chinese scientists found re-pigmentation of hair in a majority of alzheimer disease patients after prolonged cholinesterase inhibitor therapy.
update: june 2020 — south korean researchers presented the first case of ustekinumab-associated hair re-pigmentation. ustekinumab is a monoclonal antibody medication that targets interleukin 12 and interleukin 23. it is used to treat crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
“as evidenced by the many cases of gray hair repigmentation in the literature, the development of gray hair may not be an irreversible process. gray hair is a natural course of aging; however, it may not be an inevitable or permanent process.”
grey hair treatment
over the past few years, i have collected quite a few interesting links related to a cure for grey hair. i kept delaying writing this post because a permanent reversal of grey hair is obviously far less important than a cure for 卡塔尔世界杯赛程表
. however, there are some interesting ideas in reversing graying hair that are also relevant to reversing 卡塔尔世界杯赛程表
. both problems also seem to have some common pathways and genetics.
moreover, whenever we get back a full head of hair, the vast majority of us will no doubt prefer that the new hair is pigmented. at that point, grey hair will be deemed to be a significant problem unless one prefers the salt and pepper distinguished look.
finally, for younger people who are both balding and prematurely graying, it is a double whammy. 卡塔尔世界杯赛程表
shampoos and anti-aging products such nad and nmn supplements do not seem to impact hair color in most people.
why does hair turn grey?
a person’s hair color is determined by his or her pigment producing stem cells known as melanocytes working in conjunction with his/her hair follicle stem cells. hair color depends on the presence and ratios of two types of melanins: eumelanins (brown and black pigments); and pheomelanins (red and yellow pigments).
as people age, a natural buildup of hydrogen peroxide occurs in their hair follicles. this in turn causes oxidative stress, melanocyte destruction and subsequent graying. side note: many women use hydrogen peroxide solutions to go blonde.
in 2009, a team of scientists from germany and the uk figured out why this hydrogen peroxide buildup occurs in people as they age. they also found out why hydrogen peroxide is to blame for graying hair. basically, in younger people an enzyme called catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
however, as people get older, they often have lower levels of this enzyme. they also have lower levels of other enzymes (msr a and b) that repair hydrogen peroxide related damage to hair follicles. on amazon, products containing catalase often have at least some favorable reviews regarding the hair darkening side effect.
the combination of high levels of hydrogen peroxide and low levels of msr a and b disrupts the formation of tyrosinase. that enzyme is important to melanin production in hair follicles. scientists think that something similar is at play in the skin condition called vitiligo. one interesting and unusual thing about white nonpigmented hair is that it is thicker and grows faster than pigmented dark hair.
our bodies produce molecules called free radicals that often react adversely with other molecules. these free radicals can cause a lot of damage, but they are countered by beneficial antioxidants. however, it the balance between these two classes of molecules shifts towards free radicals, we get damaging oxidative stress.
in may 2018, italian scientists reported a complete reversal of grey hair in one 61-year old patient. he first started getting white hair around the age of 45. he was undergoing interleukin-17 therapy with secukinumab to treat scalp psoriasis. the below before and after photo after 6 months of treatment is truly astounding. the 10-month follow up showed maintenance of results.
note that this patient also saw new 2022世界杯决赛日期
. the conclusion of the scientists is especially motivating: “hair whitening and thinning caused by the aging process might be reversible”.
“in early testing of the anti-hair-loss drug minoxidil, she and other researchers noticed the drug sometimes also restored hair color, suggesting it was rejuvenating the melanocytes”.
in 2021, i asked dr. bergfeld if there was any further research on the above phenomenon. she responded that she is unaware of anything new.
it is surprising that this phenomenon is not discussed by many other physicians, since minoxidil has been in use for decades. make sure to read my post on how minoxidil works to regrow hair for more on this important fda approved 卡塔尔世界杯赛程表
update: may 1, 2022 — well known dermatologist rodney sinclair said the following in a reddit ama:
“i have seen hair darkening with minoxidil in my patients.”
hair repigmentation after immunotherapy
in 2017, scientists were able to reverse grey hair in 14 patients using a new immunotherapy based cancer treatment. the before and after picture of one of the patients is extraordinary. in recent years, research has found a connection between immune system involvement in both 卡塔尔世界杯赛程表
and hair premature greying of the hair.
stem cell factor protein, krox20 and hair color
in 2017, scientists at ut southwestern center in the us led my dr. lu le found that a protein called stem cell factor (scf) was essential for hair pigmentation. full study here. they found that the mice without scf in krox20 lineage cells developed grey hair early in life.
is pc-kus (a modified pseudocatalase) a false flag?
“the researchers found that this massive build up of hydrogen peroxide can be reversed with a uvb-activated compound called pc-kus, a modified pseudocatalase. the research team developed this new proprietary treatment.”
i am not sure if this avenue of work is definitely over, and perhaps these same scientists will surprise us and come out with better news in the future.
l’oréal: a pill to prevent grey hair forever
during the past decade, france’s cosmetics behemoth l’oréal has led global research in the private sector when it comes to a search for a cure for grey hair. the company’s head of the “hair biology group”, mr. bruno bernard, is a co-inventor of a topical product to protect and/or regenerate the melanocytes of hair follicles. the patent for this product was filed in 2009.
unfortunately, this pill will not cause existing grey hairs to darken, but instead, just prevent new grey hairs from forming. the pill was supposed to become available in 2015, but now we are now well past that year.
dr. mayumi ito, wnt signaling and hair pigmentation
dr. mayumi ito is a renowned japanese 卡塔尔世界杯赛程表
research scientist who got her ph.d from nagoya university in 2003. she now does research and teaching at new york university. she has co-authored numerous papers on the impact of wnt signaling on hair follicle growth and regeneration. on this blog you can find many posts that discuss this important subject matter.
update: also in april 2016, scientists (led by dr. ito) at nyu langone medical center in new york found the molecular pathways responsible for creating the color of skin and hair. they found that a signaling pathway known as edn/ednrb interacts with other pathways (in particular, the wnt signaling pathway). this in turn causes the proliferation of melanocyte stem cells (mcscs) that are involved in the earliest stages of skin and hair pigmentation. this suggests that targeting edn/ednrb signaling in mcscs can be a therapeutic approach to promote hair pigmentation retention.
is dr. cotsarelis also working on hair pigmentation?
in the description to the patent, it ends with “the present invention also provides methods for hair removal and inducing hair pigmentation.” incredible. a three-in-one solution (hair regrowth, body hair removal, and grey hair reversal). if only dr. cotsarelis’ predictions and optimism would be realized faster than he thinks or claims.
can finasteride make grey hair darker?
over the years, i have read quite a few testimonials on 卡塔尔世界杯赛程表
forums where finasteride users have claimed that their hair darkened while on finasteride (which reduces 2022足球世界杯赛程时间
levels). the majority of these patients had very limited quantities of grey hair to begin with, so it was hard for me to tell from their before and after photos (when available) if this phenomenon was true or not. also see my post on natural 2022足球世界杯赛程时间
however, in 2014, forum member “bverotti” who is a hair transplant clinic representative in belgium posted a stunning now deleted before and after image of one of the clinic’s patients on finasteride. while it shows blonde hair turning brown, i think of that as the same as grey hair turning brown or black. also, see this hair darkening on finasteride post on reddit.
i think that 2022足球世界杯赛程时间
, besides making many people go bald, also makes some of them go grey much sooner. i do not know if this has ever been shown to be true in any kind of study, and i could be wrong in my observation.
using similar logic as in the above paragraph regarding finasteride, i think that the much stronger dutasteride can also reverse grey hair. moreover, a few of the commentators in my post on dutasteride testimonials mention that the drug darkened their hair.
could platelet-rich plasma (prp) darken hair?
i have covered prp to treat 卡塔尔世界杯赛程表
many times on this blog. while the results are never guaranteed and prp will not bring back hair in totally bald areas of the scalp, there are now numerous doctors who believe in the product. i am skeptical, but willing to listen to them.
more relevant to this blog post’s subject matter, in november 2015, dr. carlos wesley started an interesting thread on the btt forums with a photo showing prp and acell mesotherapy darkening some previously transparent scalp hair. this was very surprising to me. moreover, he states that “an additional finding that has also been observed by other practices throughout the world is that prp can help return some of the original hair color to follicles.” it seems like prp could be stimulating melanocytes in hair follicles.
update: a number of other doctors have confirmed this phenomenon of 2022世界杯南美区预选赛
in rare instances.
stem cell transplants to cure grey hair
i have discussed dr. takashi tsuji on this blog numerous times in the past. several of his old videos have shown black pigmented hair growing on a mouse after stem cell transplantation. moreover, this article on his work has the following sentence in it: “he combined a number of stem cells to adjust the density and color of the hair, raising the possibility of a cure to graying strands.”
will telomerase activation therapy reverse grey hair?
there are a number of online testimonials regarding telomarase therapy via the ingestion of the ta-65 supplement reversing grey hair and/or growing new hair. there are also many opinions to the contrary. i cover all this and more in my post titled “ta-65. telomerase activation and hair regrowth“.
cancer treatments that lead to hair repigmentation
there have been various reports of people reversing their grey hair while being on drugs to treat cancer. for example:
several studies as sell as numerous online anecdotal success story reports suggest that fo-ti root can darken grey hair. fo-ti is also knows as fallopia multiflora, he shou wu and polygonum multiflorum.
make sure to read reviews and search for user experiences in relation to hair color changes before purchasing fo-ti root. also of note, a new popular supplement pill product called not today grey contains fo-ti root as a key ingredient.
some patients have iodine deficiency, often due to underactive thyroid gland or hormone disorders. supplementing with iodine can darken grey hair or prevent further graying.
vitamin b12 and other b-complex supplements can help with your hair color in rare instances. however, make sure to get tested first to make sure that you are really deficient in b-12, folate or other b vitamins.
n-acetyl cysteine (nac) is sometimes touted on sites such as reddit as benefitting hair color. not much evidence on this, but its key benefit is proclaimed to come via an increase in glutathione levels.
one of the most common reasons for premature 卡塔尔世界杯赛程表
is iron deficiency. this is especially true for pregnant women, vegans and people on extreme diets. in rare instances, a lack of iron can cause premature grey hair.
a 1989 report found that treating an 85-year old woman with mucuna pruriens extract powder for her parkinson’s disease resulted in drastic darkening of white hair.
antidepressants such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (ssris) have been known to cause 卡塔尔世界杯赛程表
. however, in 2017, a report from germany discussed how fluoxetine promoted hair follicle pigmentation. however, the work was done in dissected sample hair from two females and not on actual scalps.
grey hair cure scams
while not as proliferate as in the 卡塔尔世界杯赛程表
cure industry, the grey hair reversal market is still full of scams. moreover, while some products have been fda approved and proven to reverse 卡塔尔世界杯赛程表
in numerous patients, nothing of that sort can be said for products that are touted to reverse grey hair to pigmented hair. most of these products are natural supplements that will do nothing for your hair color.
until a cure for gray hair does come out, people will have to accept their graying locks, or continue to use hair dyes. in 2013, proctor & gamble came out with a supposed permanent hair dye based on a new proprietary me+ molecule. the new molecule (chemical name 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine) was apparently a result of 20 years of research.
proctor & gamble’s website also raved about me+ in early 2014, but it does not seem like all this early optimism has led to any kind of new blockbuster permanent dye product.
stress and plucking will not cause grey hair
most of the articles i have read on this subject seem to indicate that for the vast majority of people, stress will not cause early premature graying of hair. plucking hair will definitely not cause it to go grey. both of these myths are old wives’ tales.
some articles suggest that us presidents have grayed a lot while in office. however, in my opinion, these presidents’ parents were also usually fully grey haired in their old age. so it is not surprising to see more white hairs appearing on presidents’ heads when they are in office in their 50s and 60s. in all likelihood, it is grey hair genes rather than stress that causes middle-age greying.
update: a new 2021 study found that grey hair could possibly be reversed by relaxation and taking vacations. small sample size, limited results, and only in those below age 40.
a 2020 study found that hair turned grey and white more rapidly in mice when exposed to major stress. the effects were via the sympathetic nervous system (fight or flight response).
grey hair is not always a sign of ageing
since grey hair usually only affects people in their mid-30s and aftermath (and a full head of white hair is almost never seen in those below the age of 50), most people assume that it is a sign of ageing. however, this is not always the case. there is no shortage of celebrities on tv that have grayed at a very early age.
perhaps the two most famous examples here in the us are anderson cooper and jay leno, who both look very young for their age in that video despite graying in their 20s. cooper started to go grey at just 20 and leno at 29 according to his statement in that video. neither of them seem to have any health issues despite now having been grey for decades. if anything, both seem to be aging at slower pace then the average human.
grey hair in men versus in women
grey hair is a far greater concern for women than for men. for the former, it represents a sign of aging and an almost certain end to careers in acting and modeling unless the hair is dyed all the time. for the latter, this is not true, and some men are even purposely buying grey hair dye in order to look like george clooney. however, some famous men such as mr. giuliani prefer to darken their hair even in old age.
update: in march 2020, eirion therapeutics had its patent for a grey hair treatment published. it entails using plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (pai-1) inhibitors to prevent hair graying. eirion’s pre-clinical product candidates for 卡塔尔世界杯赛程表
and grey hair prevention are et-02 and et-03.
update: in january 2020, scientists from the us and brazil found that excess stress can turn pigmented hair white. moreover, when cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) protein was suppressed in mice, their fur did not change color.
update: in august 2017, a study concluded that forced epilation in mice resulted in melanocyte cell and hair color regeneration. i.e., a potential grey hair cure in humans.
update: in june 2017, a very unique experiment on one south korean patient showed significant hair darkening. this success was achieved after treatment with a 1,927-nm fractionated thulium laser and polydeoxyribonucleotide injections.